Biomarkers for the (cancer-related) risk of thrombosis in the veins: microRNAs
AbstractDisease conditions often include dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are short noncoding RNAs with gene regulatory activities. MiRNAs are attractive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of cancer and cardiovascular disorders because they are reasonably stable, readily quantified, and accessible from plasma or other bodily fluids. The third most frequent form of cardiovascular illness, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with a high rate of morbidity and death globally. More evidence is emerging to support the concept that microRNAs (miRNAs) have a role in controlling the pathophysiology of VTE and serving as VTE biomarkers. Cancer patients have a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than the general population. However, existing risk prediction models for cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) perform suboptimally, and innovative biomarkers are thus urgently required to determine which patients may benefit the most from thromboprophylaxis. The pathophysiology of VTE will be reviewed, beginning with the mechanistic role played by miRNAs. Then, miRNAs' potential as prognostic biomarkers for VTE in cancer-free people is discussed, and finally, CAT is the topic of extensive attention. Differential regulation of some of the CAT-associated miRNAs was also seen in VTE, providing more insight into CAT's pathogenesis. Our findings suggest that future research should use sufficiently powered methods to identify the miRNA panel that most accurately predicts VTE and CAT. To determine if miRNAs, either on their own or as part of established risk models, have promise as VTE and CAT biomarkers, validation studies employing similar patient groups are needed.